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Stone Flooring

Stone flooring

Stone flooring is a type of floor covering carved out from natural solid rock. Stone is a rock that has been quarried and cut. These blocks of rocks are cut into slabs which are sent to a processing plant to be re-cut, shaped and polished. Unlike other types of floors, stone flooring improves with age.

Types of Stone Flooring


Limestone is carved out from sedimentary rocks which are formed by the accumulation of organic materials, such as shells and coral, sand, or precipitates. Limestone is used as a flooring material for its rugged and timeless good looks. It compliments a lounge or a study having a rustic interior. Limestone is a softer stone and therefore not suitable in high traffic areas. A limestone sealant needs to be applied every few years to keep the stone looking good as new and to keep its porous nature from absorbing moisture from its surroundings which may cause staining.


Granite is quarried from igneous rocks which are formed when molten magma from the center of the earth cools and hardens. Granite is the hardest stone among the other stone flooring materials. It has a very dense grain making it almost impervious. It is the most durable and stain-resistant stone flooring. It is also the most expensive. It is ideal for use in kitchens, bathrooms and entryways. Besides being used as a flooring, granite is also used as countertops and backsplashes. Although not as porous as the other stone floors, granite still needs to be applied with a sealant every few years to maintain its good looks.


Marble is produced from metamorphic rocks which are formed under heat and pressure at the earth's crust. Marble is more porous than granite and therefore more susceptible to staining. It is important to note that marble requires a sealant to be applied every 9-12 months to keep it from staining and keep it looking like new. Marble is less expensive than granite and also ideal for use in kitchens and other areas exposed to moisture provided that it is properly sealed. It is also used as countertops and backsplashes.


Similar to marble, slate is produced from metamorphic rocks which are processed and usually cut into tiles. Slate is naturally created in many different colors and tones such as green, grey, sienna, and black.

Types of Slate Tile

Cleft Slate Tile - is a slate tile in its raw form. Natural texture of the stone is preserved.

Brushed Slate Tile - is a type of slate tile where the ridges are smoothed so the surface becomes less rugged.

Honed Slate Tile - is a type of slate tile where the ridges are filed down so the finished tile is flat and smooth. It can be polished to give it an added sheen.

Polished Concrete

Polished concrete is concrete that has been processed through a series of mechanically ground "polishing/grinding" steps similar to the production of terrazzo. This process also includes the use of a penetrant chemical known as a hardener. The concrete densifier/hardener penetrates into the concrete and creates a chemical reaction to help harden and dust proof the surface. During concrete polishing the surface is processed through a series of steps (in general a minimum of 6 grinding steps of processing is considered polished concrete) utilizing progressively finer grinding tools. The grinding tools are progressive grits of industrial diamonds in a bonded material such as metal/hybrid/resin often referred to as diamond polishing pads. Below are two techniques:

Granolithic: Granolithic is composed of cement and fine aggregate mortar, the aggregate being granite chippings, which will give the hard wearing quality of the finish. It will be laid with screed, trowelled or floated to an even and fine finish. Granolithic paving will be suitable in areas which are to receive hard wear although its appearance would not normally be suitable for internal domestic work.

Terrazo: Terrazo consists of a coloured element binder or matrix and marble chips mixed to specified proportions. The finish is hardwearing, attractive and resistant to chemical attack. Ebonite strips divide the terrazo into bays to avoid shrinkage and expansion.

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23 November 2020
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